Nuclide vector methodology
The problem of radioactive waste management, especially high-level waste (HLW) has not yet been solved in any country in the world, because HLW is the prohibitive level of activity of biologically significant radionuclides with a very long half-life, which causes their potential radiological hazard for many thousands years to come. Such waste is supposed to be buried at deep burial sites with preliminary exposure (if necessary) in order to reduce heat generation. It is clear that there is no need to talk about the construction of a burial site, the protective barriers of which will ensure the retention of radionuclides at such a time horizon. Therefore, with regard to HLW, recommendations are given for burial in deep geological systems, in rock formations, at a large depth (over 100 meters for solid and over several hundred meters for liquid radioactive waste). But this also does not last forever: the rocks are destroyed, sooner or later, activity can manifest itself in groundwater and find a way to a person through aquifers. That is why one should not underestimate the problem of disposal of low- and medium-active long-lived waste. For an adequate choice of a safe method for RW disposal, it is necessary to ensure their reliable fingerprint, which is difficult today due to the complex radionuclide composition and gaps in regulating the classification of waste for disposal. This task also requires a speedy solution.
VNIIAES has developed of a significant part of the methodological support of radioactive waste radiation monitoring at Russian nuclear power plants. To optimize radioactive waste radiation monitoring, the nuclide vector methodology is used. With the active involvement of the institute, it was introduced at the Kalinin, Leningrad, Novovoronezh, Smolensk NPPs and at the Experimental Demonstration Engineering Center (EDEC) for NPP decommissioning. Until the end of 2019, it is planned to introduce this technology at the Rostov and Belarusian NPPs.